Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: Clinical Support in Children

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: the ideal probiotic for childrenLGG bacteria

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been proven to have digestive and immune benefits for children in multiple clinical trials1-3

By actively colonizing and balancing the gastrointestinal microbiotia, as well as influencing the humoral and cell-mediated immune response, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG helps keep kids healthy by supporting their digestive functions and natural defenses to help treat and prevent common childhood illnesses.1-3

Though still emerging, early studies indicate promising connections between Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and other benefits outside the immune and digestive systems. Findings suggest promising development of new strategies for:

  • Treatment and prevention of atopic dermatis, also known as eczema4-7
  • Reduction in the incidence of allergic diseases8
  • Reduction in the incidence of Neuropsychiatric disorders9,10
  • Reduction in the incidence of dental caries, particularly in high risk children11,12


Gastrointestinal benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation in children

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most clinically studied probiotic in the world, including extensive research in children. These studies have shown how beneficial probiotic supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can be to children in addressing such topics as diarrhea and other forms of gastrointestinal distress.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces the severity and duration of diarrhea in children1-3

Over 1000 scientific studies including over 200 human clinical trials indicate the unique features of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG make the probiotic an ideal candidate because of its ability to survive stomach acid and bile, adhere to human intestinal epithelial cells and produce an antimicrobial substance to support digestive health.  This allows good bacteria to colonize within the intestines helping alleviate occasional digestive distress, including diarrhea.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces the duration of acute diarrhea in children

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces the duration of acute diarrhea in children
Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE), a major cause of mortality in children around the world, is caused by a range of factors including viruses, bacteria and parasites. Multiple clinical studies investigated the impact of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on AGE and discovered Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces both the duration and severity of acute diarrhea.4,13-21

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG significantly reduces duration of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in Children

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG significantly reduces duration of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in Children2
Clinical studies indicate Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation can reduce the duration of acute infectious diarrhea, including rotavirus-associated diarrhea, a common and serious infection in children, to an average of 56.2 hours, as compared to 76.6 hours in the control group.2

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Reduced the Incidence of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Reduced the Incidence of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea1
Children commonly suffer from antibiotic-associated side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, bloating and abdominal pain. Antibiotics disturb the balance of the microbiota causing pathogenic bacteria to become overactive while impeding the function of the beneficial microbiota.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been extensively studied and is regarded as the ideal probiotic to lower the occurrence of antibiotic-associated side effects.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG should be recommended for children who are prescribed antibiotic therapies to help maintain the proper balance of bacterial microorganisms and avoid potential gastrointestinal distress.

Children taking Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG with their antibiotics were significantly less likely to suffer from antibiotic- associated side effects like diarrhea.1

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG helps reduce the frequency and severity of abdominal pain.

Beyond diarrhea, a variety of symptoms associated with gastrointestinal distress have been seen in children. It is suspected that inflammation maybe responsible for these complaints. Probiotics, specifically Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, may help address the inflammatory response and have been shown to assist with abdominal pain in children irrespective of a diagnosis.


Immune benefits of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation in children

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been demonstrated to benefit immune defense by contributing to the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and stimulating the innate and adaptive immune response.23

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduced the risk of infections in children3

Many children across the world contract gastroenteritis and respiratory tract infections each year. Children’s developing immune systems are continually being exposed to new pathogens, especially in environments that encourage close social interactions—such as school and daycare—that leave children more susceptible to infection than adults.

Several studies show that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can help prevent and reduce the duration and severity of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children.9,24-26 By supporting children’s immune systems, via their digestive tracts, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can reduce the number of sick days children have throughout the year.25

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Reduced the Risk to Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Infections in Children Attending Daycare

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Reduced the Risk to Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Infections in Children Attending Daycare3

  • Children receiving Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG had a reduced risk of upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) infections.
  • Patients in the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG cohort who did acquire respiratory infections had a reduced risk of severity as measured by respiratory infections lasting longer than three days.

Clinical study shows that supplementing daycare children with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG long-term prevented select bacterial infections for up to three years after stopping Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation.27

The Culturelle® Advantage

The Culturelle Advantage comparison chart


^Culturelle® Kids Daily Probiotics are recommended to promote a favorable gut flora, support gastrointestinal health, help manage acute infectious diarrhea and help manage and reduce the risk of antibiotic associated diarrhea and are not intended for any other use / purpose.
1. Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children.J Pediatr. 1999;135:564-568.
2. Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, et al: Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.2000 30(1):5460.
3. Hojsak, I, Snovak N,  Abdović S , et al. Clinical Nutrition.2010;29(3):312-316.
4. Isolauri E, Arvola T, Sutas Y, Moilanen E, Salminen S. Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 2000;30(11):1604-1610.
5.  Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H, Kero P, Koskinen P, Isolauri E. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2001;357(9262):1076-1079.
6. Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, Arvilommi H, Isolauri E. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003;361(9372):1869-1871.
7. Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, Isolauri E. Probiotics during the first 7 years of life: A cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(4):1019-1021.
8. Cosenza, L., et al. Bugs for atopy: the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strategy for food allergy prevention and treatment in children. Beneficial Microbes. 2015; 6(2): 225-232.
9. Sudo N, Chida Y, Aiba Y, et al. Postnatal microbial colonization programs the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system for stress response in mice. J Physiol. 2004;558(Pt 1):263-275.
10. Partty A, Kalliomaki M, Wacklin P, Salminen S, Isolauri E. A possible link between early probiotic intervention and the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders later in childhood: A randomized trial. Pediatr Res. 2015;77(6):823-828.
11.  Nase L, Hatakka K, Savilahti E, et al. Effect of long-term consumption of a probiotic bacterium, lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in milk on dental caries and caries risk in children. Caries Res. 2001;35(6):412-420.
12. Glavina D, Gorseta K, Skrinjaric I, Vranic DN, Mehulic K, Kozul K. Effect of LGG yoghurt on streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus spp. salivary counts in children. Coll Antropol. 2012;36(1):129-132.
13. Aggarwal S, Upadhyay A, Shah D, Teotia N, Agarwal A, Jaiswal V. Lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea: An open labelled, randomized controlled trial. Indian J Med Res. 2014;139(3):379-385.
14. Basu S, Paul DK, Ganguly S, Chatterjee M, Chandra PK. Efficacy of high-dose lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in controlling acute watery diarrhea in indian children: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;43(3):208-213.
15. Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, et al. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: A multicenter european trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;30(1):54-60.
16. Kaila M, Isolauri E, Soppi E, Virtanen E, Laine S, Arvilommi H. Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human lactobacillus strain. Pediatr Res. 1992;32(2):141-144.
17. Majamaa H, Isolauri E, Saxelin M, Vesikari T. Lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995;20(3):333-338.
18. Nixon AF, Cunningham SJ, Cohen HW, Crain EF. The effect of lactobacillus GG on acute diarrheal illness in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(10):1048-1051.
19. Pant AR, Graham SM, Allen SJ, et al. Lactobacillus GG and acute diarrhoea in young children in the tropics. J Trop Pediatr. 1996;42(3):162-165.
20. Raza S, Graham SM, Allen SJ, et al. Lactobacillus GG in acute diarrhea. Indian Pediatr. 1995;32(10):1140-1142.
21. Shornikova A-, Isolauri E, Burkanova L, Lukovnikova S, Vesikari T. A trial in the karelian republic of oral rehydration and lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute diarrhoea. Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics. 1997;86(5):460-465.  
23. Saad N, Delattre C, Urdaci M, Schmitter JM, Bressollier P. An overview of the last advances in probiotic and prebiotic field. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2013;50(1):1-16.
24. Hojsak I, Snovak N, Abdovic S, Szajewska H, Misak Z, Kolacek S. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition. 2010;29(3):312-316.
25. Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Ponka A, et al. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: Double blind, randomised trial. Br Med J. 2001;322(7298):1327-1329.
26. Kumpu M, Kekkonen RA, Kautiainen H, et al. Milk containing probiotic lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and respiratory illness in children: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(9):1020-1023.
27. Korpela K, Salonen A, Virta LJ, Kumpu M, Kekkonen RA, de Vos WM. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intake modifies preschool children’s intestinal microbiota, alleviates penicillin-associated changes, and reduces antibiotic use. PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0154012.